The earliest suggestions by a physicist for the existence of Dark Matter was in 1922 from observations of the motions of stars in galaxies. It wasn't until the 1960's that computations proved that there is 6x more Dark Matter than visible baryonic matter in galaxies. This was deduced because there is much more gravity in galaxies than was previously thought due to the fact that stars have much greater velocities than they should have and because of this the galaxies should be flying apart but they are not. So Dark Matter was invented to glue it all together. Dark Matter was invented because Newtonian physics says that we live in a gravity-momentum universe which does not permit of another force to make the universe work without the introduction of a magical constant.
That was a fundamental mistake.
In a Newtonian gravity-momentum universe, that is the only way the phenomenon could be explained. And because nobody could find sufficient stellar sized masses to account for Dark Matter, it was deduced that the universe is filled with centillions of NON CLUMPING Dark Matter, gravitational particles which are entirely undetectable other than gravitationally.
Non-clumping, gravitational particles is a fundamental contradiction so must be a load of BUNKUM. If it doesn’t clump, it is not a gravitational particle. Clearly, if Dark Matter is gravitationally attractive and attracts baryonic matter, which it does, then it must clump not only to itself but to baryonic matter. So there should be 7 X more very large astronomical bodies in and around galaxies comprised of Dark and Baryonic Matter. So where are they?
And now much more recently observations have established that some galaxies seem to have an extra gravitational component causing the stars in the outer reaches to move much faster than logic would have it. Without that component, stars would move more slowly the farther out they are just as the planets in solar systems do. To cope with this phenomenon in the Newtonian gravity-momentum universe, cosmologists have had to resort to another invention to make their broken Newtonian science work which is the galaxy Dark Matter Halo
So let us examine the Dark Matter gravitational halo surrounding galaxies. Bearing in mind that Dark Matter does not clump how is it that we have a CONCENTRATED halo of Dark Matter surrounding galaxies? That is a contradiction. If matter concentrates, it clumps. How does it get concentrated without clumping? It either clumps like gravitationally attracting baryonic matter does or it doesn’t. And if it is clumping then we should have a very large number of concentrated masses in the halo just like we have in the visible parts of galaxies. The reason it has to be much more concentrated here (if it exists) is that the gravitational force has to be much greater in the halo than in the body of the galaxy if it is to accelerate stars in the outer reaches otherwise they wouldn’t accelerate.
Oh and there is another stark contradiction. We are told that Dark Matter passes right through Baryonic Matter without affecting it, so much so that in 30 years of sophisticated experiments these magic particles have never been detected striking a Baryonic Matter particle. Yet these same particles are gravitational particles that hugely influence the motions of stars in galaxies. Either Dark Matter gravitationally attracts ordinary matter or it does not. It can’t in one theoretical galactic scenario hugely affect matter gravitationally and in the next pass right through matter without being attracted to it. Theorists insist that billions of Dark Matter particles are passing through every square centimetre of us every second. So every atom of very dense matter in every experiment however deep underground will be bombarded with gravitational Dark Matter particles. Well… where are they? The jury has judged that a galaxy halo filled with either concentrated Dark Matter particles or very large numbers of star sized objects is a load of HOGWASH. So NOW we have got to conclude that Dark Matter MACHOs don’t exist and Dark Matter WIMPs don’t exist either.
Is this the end?
I don’t think so provided that we now assume that magic Dark Matter doesn’t exist and move forward…..
So far I have not mentioned Dark Energy. Dark Energy is perceived not to have any measurable mass or gravity and supposedly does not interact with matter. Funny thing is that although there is a vast amount of Dark Energy (68% of all the mass/energy in the universe) sloshing about in the universe and seemingly, uniformly distributed throughout it, it does not seem to be needed to do any work at all other than to nonchalantly drift about accelerating the expansion of the universe. It has got huge presence although it is invisible, has no tangible substance and it can magically pass through matter without affecting it. So how can it propel anything?
Having suggested that Dark Matter and especially concentrated Dark Matter cannot exist either in galaxies or around them, I am proposing an alternative mechanism for how the galaxy machine works.
I have discovered that the seemingly footloose Dark Energy drifting about the universe is neither footloose nor drifting about. It is in fact very much directly engaged with matter in maintaining the stability of galaxies.
I need Dark Energy to enable the galaxy machine to work. The machine will not work without the action of another component. What I need is a propulsive force to counteract gravitational force to explain the velocity of stars in galaxies.
I hypothesize that Dark Energy is the fuel for the propulsive force that I require.
I propose that Dark Energy is converted to propulsive force directly by matter itself. It is this propulsive force that is propelling matter in a galaxy at much greater velocities than could be the case in a gravity-momentum universe in equilibrium. Because the galaxy is in equilibrium, namely that it is not flying apart, there also must be much greater gravitational force exerted by the core of the galaxy enabling stable orbits to be maintained.
By acting directly on matter and converting to propulsive force, Dark Energy directly counteracts Gravitational Energy and enables the propulsion necessary to maintain galactic equilibrium. If matter has this fundamental property of propulsion then there is no need of Dark Matter or any constants, conditions or caveats.
It is very easy to observe gravity and therefore to know that it exists. But the idea that matter should somehow propel itself as well is inconceivable to most people and it is also not easy to observe. But why should matter not propel itself?
You take for granted that matter self-attracts in that it exerts gravitational force. But why should it be able to exert gravitational force any more than it should be able to exert propulsive force - and how does it do it? Nobody knows the answer to these questions. Matter converts Gravitational Energy into gravitational force and matter converts Dark Energy into propulsive force. If you want a more detailed explanation of this please go back to my chapter on the Accelerating Expanding Universe.
What is important is, it doesn't matter where or how they generate the energy. The simple fact is that they do. Gravitational Energy is the fundamental property of matter which enables gravitational force and Dark Energy is the fundamental property of matter that enables propulsion. Wherever you have matter there is gravity and wherever you have matter you have self-propulsion of matter and they are both present everywhere there is matter and in direct proportion to the mass of the matter.
Coming back to the question of the galaxy halo anomaly: If there isn’t a gravitational halo causing the acceleration of stars in the outer reaches of galaxies, how does it work? It is quite simple really and it works like this: If you apply the fundamental force of propulsion to the stars in galaxies, it is perfectly logical that at a certain radius in a galaxy when a star's propulsive force exceeds the point at which the gravitational core of the galaxy can hold it in a stable orbit, it will increase its angular velocity. It is perfectly logical that all stars which are beyond that threshold will have a surplus of propulsive force to fuel acceleration without the overriding constraint of the gravity from the core of the galaxy. The result is an increase in velocity.
If matter has the property of propulsion i.e. is self-propelled, then there is no need of a Dark Matter halo because the notion of a gravitational tractor force in the halo is redundant.
And this is the First Affirmation of the Self-Propulsion of Matter.
In the accelerating expanding universe scenario I initially observed that matter is self-propelled. so then I looked around the universe for other evidence that matter behaves in the same way. And I find that there are apparent anomalies everywhere you look.. They appear to be anomalies because they are viewed by physicists from the insecurity of the broken gravity-momentum NEWTONIAN order which cannot explain how and why stars behave in this way. When viewed, however, from the security of the new perspective of the gravity-propulsion perspective, there are no anomalies: Dark energy is the fuel for the propulsion of matter and in this the First Affirmation of the Self-Propulsion of Matter, stars in the outer reaches of galaxies behave exactly as they should because gravity at the core is insufficient to prevent the stars in the outer reaches from achieving the higher velocities which have been observed due to the freeing up of propulsive force which results in higher velocities of those stars
An interesting parallel can be drawn between the accelerating expanding universe and the increase of velocity of matter in the outer reaches of spiral galaxies: In the case of the accelerating expanding universe by virtue of the excess of total propulsive force at around 7.8 billion years after the Big Bang, propulsive force exceeded gravitational force and so acceleration of the expansion of the universe began. This could only have happened if our universe is a gravity-propulsion universe. No other natural mechanism exists which will enable this transition from gravitational entrapment to accelerated expansion.
So how does this relate to the galactic scenario, and if it does is it significant? In the case of a spiral galaxy if there is a surplus of propulsive force over gravitational force then there will be a point both in time and in the radius of a galaxy when the propulsive force of a star will exceed the gravitational forces and its velocity will exceed the gravitational forces and its velocity will therefore increase out of line with the stars in stable orbits around the galaxy. The further from the core of the galaxy, the greater the freedom from gravitational pull and therefore the greater the surplus of propulsive force available to the object resulting in further increases in velocity.
I wonder if cosmologists have considered whether or not there was a time when gravity held total sway over galaxies and held all of the stars in trapped orbits or have the stars in the outer reaches of galaxies always been partially free from the gravity of the core. It seems to me that if stars are self propelled that these galaxies must also be expanding exponentially just like the universe is. This will be an exciting project for cosmologists when they start working in the new science of matter
And now I come to the Second Affirmation of the Self-Propulsion of Matter
It has been established by astronomers that all of the stars in galaxies have much higher velocities than can be explained if we live in a Newtonian gravity-momentum universe. The contradiction for astronomers is that when using the luminosity of a galaxy to compute the masses of the stars in the galaxy, the mass falls far short of what it is when they compute the mass based on the velocities of those stars. The problem is that the light weight stars are moving too fast for their gravity to hold them in orbit so they should be flying out of the galaxy but they are not. They are in stable orbits. So the astronomers say that there must be extra gravity in the galaxy holding the stars in orbit hence the invention of extra mass in the from of invisible Dark Matter. But if the stars are generating their own propulsive force to counteract gravity and they are in stable orbits then the extra gravity has to be in the super massive black hole.
So what happens to the Dark Matter if the higher velocities of the stars is due to the fact that the stars achieve those velocities and stable orbits by virtue of self-propulsion and the effect of the super massive gravitational black hole? well... I will tell you. It simply disappears into the black hole because that is where the gravity and most of the mass is.
If you view the galaxy from the perspective of the new order, that of gravity-propulsion, the calculations become much less complicated. To start with, I am not challenging the calculations for the total ass of the galaxy as astronomers are quite confident of the quality of the science. What I am questioning is where the bulk of the mass is. And I am saying the velocity of the stars tells us that the bulk of the mass must be in the super massive black hole. In fact because of the velocities of the stars in the galaxy, the mass of the black hole can be much more accurately determined especially as all of the mass that is not in the stars is in the black hole.
So I repeat, astrophysics has suddenly become much less complicated and furthermore, I cannot see what function Dark Matter could have in a gravity-propulsion galaxy. It is superfluous as galaxies work perfectly well without it if matter is self propelled.
To summarize: earlier I have shown in the grand scheme of the accelerating expanding universe, matter itself is being propelled and it is the velocities of galaxies and galaxy clusters that is increasing exponentially causing an overall acceleration in the expansion of space.
Now I have shown in this the first affirmation of the self-propulsion of matter that beyond a certain radius of a spiral galaxy the self-propulsion of the stars exceeds the ability of the core of the galaxy to hold them in fixed radius orbits and so their velocities begin to increase and so they achieve the higher velocities observed. NEWTON'S laws based as they are on a gravity-momentum universe scenario cannot accommodate this outcome without the invention of the Dark Matter gravitational halo.
And I show in the second affirmation of the self-propulsion of matter that stars in stable orbits self accelerate to the much higher velocities that are required to maintain their orbits around the super massive black hole in spite of having much lower masses as calculated by their luminosity than should be the case if we were in a Newtonian gravity-momentum galaxy.
It is quite clear to me that if matter at astronomical scales is self-propelled, all of the anomalies particularly relating to velocities in any scenario are explained. AND SO YOU HAVE TO CONCLUDE THAT MATTER IS THE INSTRUMENT IN CONVERTING DARK ENERGY TO PROPULSIVE FORCE WHICH IS JUST AS PROBABLE AS MATTER CONVERTING GRAVITATIONAL ENERGY INTO GRAVITATIONAL FORCE AMD BOTH TOGETHER FUNDAMENTALLY CONTROL HOW MATTER BEHAVES.
By now you might be asking how the planets and satellites of planets will function if matter is self-propelled. So you might say that if the same laws operate universally, there should be a way of showing that the planets in our solar system are also governed by the same laws i.e. that they are also self-propelled. In the chapter on Relative Movements of the Planets I show empirically that the rotational motions of the planets are governed both by their respective distances from the Sun and also by their masses. In other words the rotational motion of the planets is not only governed by primordial momentum but is also driven by propulsion.
Please now move on to Dark Matter and the Effect on Space Flight where I want to raise the issue of the effect of the gravity-propulsion universe on space flight calculations.